Browsing 02. Research and Projects Outputs by Subject "Armenia"
Results Per Page
ItemTraffic Surveillance and Human Rights: How Can States Overcome the Negative Impact of Surveillance Technologies on the Individual Right to Respect for Privacy and Personal Data Protection?(Global Campus of Human Rights, 2020) Torosyan, ManeThe crucial role of surveillance technologies for the enforcement of traffic laws and prevention of traffic accidents, as well as for the development of modern traffic management systems and regulation of traffic jams, is acknowledged widely but so far little attention has been given to human rights concerns arising from traffic surveillance. However, traffic surveillance greatly affects several individual human rights, more specifically the individual right to private life and personal data protection. In the case of traffic surveillance, interference by a public authority can be reasonably justified with the legitimate purpose of detecting traffic law violations, an action necessary ‘in a democratic society’ and for ‘the prevention of disorder or crime’. In this regard, human rights concerns may arise not from the very fact of video monitoring, but the recording and processing of data which may create an unlawful interference with individual human rights. In the process of traffic surveillance and further proceedings in response to traffic law violations, general principles of personal data protection may be significantly affected, specifically the requirements of personal data being ‘obtained and processed fairly and lawfully’, ‘processed for specified and legitimate purposes and not used in a way incompatible with those purposes’; ‘not excessive in relation to the purposes for which they are processed’; ‘preserved in a form which permits identification of the data subjects for no longer than is required for the purpose for which those data are stored’. The case study of traffic law enforcement in the Republic of Armenia (RA) reveals several examples of how protection of individual human rights may be challenged through traffic law enforcement policies and procedures and offers useful lessons for mitigating the negative impact of surveillance technologies on the right to respect for private life and personal data protection.
ItemWomen Human Rights Defenders in a New Social and Political Reality of Armenia: Active in the Margins, Unprotected in the Core(Global Campus of Human Rights, 2019) Hovhannisyan, Siran ; Shahnazaryan, GoharWomen human rights defenders stand up for women’s rights and gender equality, they see and believe in the importance of being vocal for those women and girls around the world that are somehow deprived from the opportunity to speak for themselves. This policy paper addresses women’s and gender issues in Armenia, and especially the ways women human rights defenders react and respond to gender-based injustices. Recent experiences demonstrated that women human rights defenders and activists are significant actors in the women’s movement in Armenia that has tried to establish the climate of equality in the Armenian society for more than a century. With this policy brief we highlight the importance of the work of women human rights defenders in Armenia especially in the new political and social realities in the country which, despite the fact of the revolution, are still to be transformed from complex gender perspectives. We argue that although Armenia is undergoing major political, social and economic changes and, hopefully, developments, there is evidently a need to point out some field-specific important aspects that the state and other stakeholders should consider in their works and co-operations. This policy brief also addresses the issue of safety of women human rights defenders and gives recommendations to different stakeholders/ parties in decision-making.