Global Campus Human Rights Journal (GCHRJ) is established as a peer-reviewed bi-annual publication dedicated to serving as a forum for rigorous scholarly analysis, critical commentaries, and reports on recent developments pertaining to human rights and democratisation globally, particularly by adopting multi- and inter-disciplinary perspectives, and using comparative approaches. Global Campus Human Rights Journal also aims to serve as a forum for fostering interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration between stakeholders, including academics, activists in human rights and democratisation, NGOs and civil society. It is an open access journal published under the auspices of the Global Campus of Human Rights, and is supported financially by the European Union Commission.
(Global Campus of Human Rights, 2020)
Jambi, Reham; Arbi, Chiraz; Werf, Charlotte : van der; Lotf, Ahmed Samy
The UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty outlines
various pathways to detention in the contexts of armed conflicts and national
security. A particular focus of this article falls on a comparative study between
three case studies in the Arab region – notably Iraq & Syria (ISIS regions),
Libya, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). This comparative study
is used in order to identify common problems as well as common good practices
towards reaching a preliminary regional approach. With the defeat of ISIS,
approximately 29 000 children have been detained in the northeast of Syria
and in Iraq. Of those, only a limited number of children have been repatriated
to their or their parents’ countries of origin, highlighting the overall reluctance
of states to repatriate jihadist fighters for alleged security concerns. Detained
children associated with ISIS are susceptible to radicalisation, aggravated
socio-psychological harm and deprivation of the right to a normal childhood.
The changing nature of armed conflict from ‘traditional’ wars to conflicts
between non-state armed groups corresponds with an increase in the treatment
of children as perpetrators rather than victims (especially in Libya). Children
affiliated with terrorist groups are put to trial in circumstances that are
contrary to international child justice standards. In the OPT, a high number of
arrested children are mistreated, while they are also subjected to military courts
and law. While states have the primary duty to prevent any potential security
threats (including terrorism), protecting children from all types of violence is an
obligation under international human rights law. Recognising the pressing need
to liberate children from their precarious situation within detention camps, this
article calls for concerted efforts to bring adequate solutions in accordance with
international standards of justice for children in a way that promotes their
rehabilitation and reintegration.
Key words: children’s rights; armed conflict; national security; deprivation
of liberty; children deprived of liberty; children in Palestine; children of
ISIS; children in Libya; UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty;
deprivation of liberty on grounds of armed conflict; deprivation of liberty on
grounds of national security
War has broken out in Europe once again, threatening the peace of nations and their people. The Russian Federation, on 24 February 2022, invaded the territory of Ukraine, starting a full-scale armed conflict that triggered serious repercussions for the civilian population. This study aims to investigate the emergency response to the initial wave of internal displacement through analysis of what humanitarian aid was supplied by state and non-state entities according to the obligations accepted and the situation on the ground. The data was collected by scrutinising reports, articles, regulatory acts and other relevant publications. Interviews with experts and internally displaced persons were conducted to generate insights and validate findings. The investigation highlights the insufficiency and lack of capacity of the Ukrainian state response in providing essential assistance to Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), and reveals the obstacles to people’s movement as they searched for security. Civil society, in its turn, maintained an essential role in the humanitarian response, providing their possible assistance and solutions wherever the state failed. The lack of coordination of the existing means and the lack of empowerment of civil society organisations did not facilitate the necessary emergency, as the most needy were even more vulnerable under conditions where lines of communication were scarce. Tentative recommendations on strengthening the response capacities include adoption of the binding international covenant, detailing emergency provisions in the domestic law, granting power to a focal point for IDP protection, and facilitating administrative arrangements that empower the population and the Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) alike.
The Global Classroom is one of the flagship international activities of the Global Campus of Human Rights, the aim of which is to bring together students, professors and experts from all its regional programmes. The Classroom conducts team research on a topic of current interest for all the regions involved, and this is studied, analysed and discussed through the lenses of different regional perspectives in a week-long conference. The discussion is enriched with the participation of experts including representatives of states, United Nations (UN) agencies and civil society organisations (CSOs). The uniqueness of this annual event lies in the possibility of understanding key regional perspectives and deepening the study of global human rights and democracy challenges.
Since 2014, it has become an established practice to link the Global Classroom event to the annual Global Campus (GC) research programme. The benefit of this is the opportunity for students, academics and experts to interact in an open lively forum and provide inputs which could feed into the research programme and enrich its findings. The 2022 Global Classroom was hosted by GC Africa and coordinated by the University of Pretoria’s Centre for Human Rights in Pretoria, South Africa, from 30 May to 4 June 2022. This year's Global Classroom research theme was internal displacement. Students from the GC regional programmes came together to present their work on internal displacement to an audience made up of experts from academia, government agencies, UN and CSOs. Notably, the event was attended by the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs).