Living inside or outside the European Union for Roma : questioning the differences for living conditions of Roma and Roma inclusion policies with Portugal and Turkey examples
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The thesis discusses the question of Roma inside and outside the European Union by analysing different aspects of policies and legal instruments for Roma inclusion within Portugal and Turkey. Data for this study were obtained from various reports and legal and policy documents about relevant scopes. The main resources are the scope of minority rights, social and economic rights, equality and non-discrimination from institutions of United Nation, European Union and OSCE. The thesis starts with a discourse about who are the Roma people and their history to understand their incomparability from the beginning. The second chapter involves the concept of minority and minority rights protection by indicating difficulties to place Roma groups in the minority discourse and to protect their rights. The third and fourth chapters show the lack for a successful Roma inclusion as a part of social inclusion at political and legal level. Also, they recommend including multiple aspects of the complex and interrelated issues of Roma populations in the EU, particularly Portugal, and Turkey. In conclusion, this study indicates similarities between the poor living conditions of Roma and the segregated place of Roma in society, even though legal and policy instruments of the EU enhance more protection and promotion of Roma identity and their rights.