Global Campus Arab World: DEMA --->ARMA
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Arab Master in Democracy and Human Rights Theses / Internship Reports written in partial fulfilment of master's degree
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ItemSponsorship system and Syrian refugees: promoting exploitation and abuse. To which extent the Kafala system can be considered a form of human trafficking and the increasing vulnerability of Syrian refugees in Lebanon( 2017)The overall idea of this research is to analyse the effects of the sponsorship system on Syrian refugees residing in Lebanon. Through the inquiry of the Kafala system from a legal definition and through the assessment of the policies, the paper will prove that this system can be assimilated to a form of human trafficking. Taking into consideration the precarious legal status of Syrian refugees and the controversial measures adopted by the General Security Forces in the last couple of years, we will analyse the new registration measures and the role of the sponsor as such. In particular, the research will take into consideration the period following the year 2014 when the government changed and adopted more restrictive measures. It will specifically focus on the new entry and residency requirements stressing on the relationship between Syrian refugees and kafeels (sponsors). The paper will explore the reasons behind the implementation of this system, considering the security concern, and the consequences on the livelihoods of Syrian refugees. The research will conduct an assessment on the legal status of Syrian refugees in Lebanon in light of the recent regulatory changes and argue that these measure leave many of them in a deeply precarious position.
ItemEconomic reconciliation in the context of transitional justice in Tunisia( 2017)In spite of its existence since the development of the transitional justice in Tunisia; an increasing attention has been built up in the country as well as on the international level during the past three years regarding a new form of economic reconciliation in Tunisia due to a proposed initiative by the presidency and its anticipated effects on the community and on the outcomes of the transitional justice. This up-growing attention was the result of different parties within the Tunisian community that have initiated a strong opposition movement regarding this newly developed proposition. This movement is comprised of various efforts and approaches aiming at, mainly, rejecting an initiative that is considered to promote impunity. Consequently, the efforts were translated into a wide national movement that reflected the high sense of cooperation between different actors regardless of their diverse backgrounds. Though Tunisia has been considered as a promising example for adopting different anti-corruption policies after the Revolution, the current situation indicates that such policies were neither enough nor serious to essentially serve the goals of transitional justice. Therefore, obviously another approach has to be adopted in order to serve and achieve the goals of both the Revolution and transitional justice.
ItemThe origin of women’s segregation in Lebanon’s political life between patriarchy and consociational democracy( 2017)This paper postulates that the overlooked role of political familialism forms the foundation for women’s segregation in Lebanese politics. It focuses on internal features that characterize the dominant political parties to reveal that they are grounded on a system of political familialism which is based on patriarchal and hegemonic masculinity. As such, it argues that the deep structures of Lebanon’s political system produce elements (namely patriarchal kinship politics and clientilist networks) that are inhospitable for women in politics. Whilst political familialism is considered the root for the exclusion of women in politics, this system is augmented and enshrined by a majoritarian electoral system and a consociational model which lacks democratic qualities and enhances polarizations between the sects and sectarian hegemonic leadership; which, in turn, regenerates a fixed set of male-oriented political elites and families. As such, while adopting an electoral gender quota is necessary to enhance women’s political participation, this step must be accompanied with democratization initiatives to weaken the current familial and clientilist features that dominate Lebanon’s political system. Ergo, the author proposes establishing a law on political parties and an adoption of a proportional representation system as part of the institutional, electoral, and educational reforms towards further democratization.
ItemPalestinian refugees issue in the Middle East peace process and the international law( 2017)The Thesis addresses the Middle East Peace Process from Madrid Conference in 1991 to Taba Rounds in 2001. The focus of the analysis will be on the Palestinian Refugees question, by examining the underlying causes for their prolonged refugee status, in a significant violation of fundamental human rights, refugees law and international law conventions. This Thesis explores the factors contributing to the failure of the Middle East Peace process, it will examine the extent to which: the unbalanced power between Israel and the Palestinians; the lack of a binding force by the United Nations and the international community in applying a just solution to the plight of the Palestinian refugees , in which, it contravenes specific provisions of UN Resolution 194; the impact of the "Protection Gap" absence on Palestinian refugees; and finally, Israel's devolution and denial of refugees' right to return . The implications of these factors have been effecting the Palestinian refugees daily lives for 69 years today, both at the structural and personal levels - particularly, those the host countries -. The Thesis assess the effect possible scenarios vis-a-vis the international and humanitarian law that may have on the final outcome of the Peace Process, highlighting the importance of UN Resolution 194, in ameliorating the Palestinian refugees suffering and their extended period of uncertainty. Accordingly, it is argued that the improvement of the Palestinian Refugees living conditions should not be contingent upon a final peace agreement for the ongoing Palestine - Israeli conflict, the Palestinian people aspirations to self-determination, nor should it affect refugees aspirations to return in any future peace agreement.
ItemSyrian refugees in Morocco : facts and recommendations( 2017)Defined as the “worst disaster since the end of the cold war”1, starting in the spring of 2011, the Syrian army was ordered to stop demonstrations that took place across the country. The violent response to peaceful demonstrations led to armed conflict between the government and the opposition. As a result of ongoing armed conflict, thousands of Syrians fled Syria to find safety in neighboring countries: Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan. By March 2013, UNHCR announced that the number of refugees fleeing Syria has reached one million2. Since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, approximately 5,000,000 Syrians had fled their homeland and another 6,000,000 have been displaced, almost one-third of the Syrian population. The number of Syrian refugees in the world is now higher than the entire populations of Denmark, Finland, Norway, Palestine, Ireland Kuwait or Qatar. An estimated six thousand Syrians are believed to be in Morocco by the middle of 20173. This is a study of the status of Syrian refugees in Morocco: The Moroccan governmental and political response to the crisis, facts and solutions of Syrian refugees in Morocco. The main and most important issues that Syrian refugees are facing: 1. Protection: legal, physical and psychological, 2. Adequate healthcare 3. Shelter and basic housing 4. Access to education 5. Employment 6. Food security and access to water