Volume 1 No 2




Socio-economic development and resource redistribution as tools for conflict prevention and post-conflict peace building in fragile societies: A comparative analysis of Burundi and Rwanda
by Nicholas W Orago

Human rights violations in the ChevronTexaco case, Ecuador: Cultural genocide?
by Anna B Suman

Intractable conflicts in Africa: The international response to the Darfur and South Sudan crises
by Rodger Owiso, Elsabé Boshoff, Adiam Z Tsighe and Tapiwa M Mamhare

Special focus: Securisation

Editorial of special focus: Securitisation and its impact on human rights and human security
by Ana Krasteva

Introduction to Global Classroom on Securitisation
by Manfred Nowak

State security, securitisation and human security in Africa: The tensions, contradictions and hopes for reconciliation
by Kwadwo Appiagyei-Atua, Tresor M Muhindo, Iruebafa Oyakhirome, Estella K Kabachwezi and Stephen Buabeng-Baidoo

The ‘mantra of stability’ versus human security in the post-Soviet space
by Sos Avetisyan, Vahan Abrahamyan, Marianna Chobanyan, Kostantyn Lyabuk and Walanga Nabi

Securitisation versus citizenship in the Balkan states: Populist and authoritarian misuses of security threats and civic responses
by Anna Krasteva and Nebojša Vladisavljević

From sleepwalking into surveillance societies to drifting into permanent securitisation: Mass surveillance, security and human rights in Europe
by Wiebke Lamer

The impact of securitisation on marginalised groups in the Asia Pacific: Humanising the threats to security in cases from the Philippines, Indonesia and China
by Eunha Kim, Jean Dinco, Louise Suamen, Mike Hayes and Tilman Papsch

Securitisation in the Arab region: A new form of kinship relations?
by Francisco Astudillo, Razane Boustany, Henriette Gentil, Mudar Kassis and Nora Taha

Securitisation and its impact on human rights in Latin America
by Diego Lopez

Recent Regional Developments

Selected regional developments in human rights and democratisation during 2016: Rights amid turmoil in the Arab region
by Ahmed Abdou, Fatima Barghouthi, Juan Bautista Cartes Rodrigues, Cedric d’Hondt, Jasmin Lilian Diab, Maria Teresia Di Lenna, Amr Dukmak, Lyn Eid, Joanna El Chakar, Khadiga Embaby, Maria Geagea, Ayla Ghaziri, Serina Hammond, Reham Jambi, Louise Lagarde, Angela L Timmermans, Elena Manfellotto, Giulia Pepoli, Lorena Sanchez Borland, Augustin Sauvadet and Ammar Younas

Selected developments in human rights and democratisation during 2016: Sub-Saharan Africa
by Michael G Nyarko

Selected regional developments in human rights and democratisation during 2016: Referendums on the rise in Europe: Powerful tool of the populists or a step towards increased citizen participation in EU politics?
by Chiara Altafin and Wiebke Lamer

Selected regional developments in human rights and democratisation in the Asia Pacific during 2016: Been ‘down’ so long, it looks like ‘up’ from here
by Mike Hayes


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 18
  • Item
    Global Campus Human Rights Journal, Volume 1 No 2
    (Global Campus, 2017-12) Guest editor for special focus: Anna Krasteva New Bulgarian University
    Global Campus Human Rights Journal (Human Rights Journal) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal, published under the auspices of the Global Campus of Human Rights as an open-access on-line journal.
  • Item
    (Global Campus, 2017-12) Viljoen, Frans ; Mullen, Matthew ; Krasteva, Anna
    This is the second issue of the first volume of the Global Campus Human Rights Journal. It consists of three parts: a part containing articles of a general nature; a part consisting of articles all centred around a special focus; and a part discussing recent developments in human rights and democratisation in various regions of the world.
  • Item
    Socio-economic development and resource redistribution as tools for conflict prevention and post-conflict peace building in fragile societies: A comparative analysis of Burundi and Rwanda
    (Global Campus, 2017-12) Orago, Nicholas Wasonga
    Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a myriad of conflicts since the end of the Cold War. Many of these conflicts have lasted for long periods, leading to massive violations of human rights and creating general human suffering. The transitional justice processes that have been employed to resolve these intractable conflicts have mainly concentrated on political deal making and support to political-legal structures. Scant emphasis has been placed on the resolution of structural causes and factors contributing to these conflicts, such as poverty, inequality and socio-economic marginalisation. The failure to put in place post-conflict socio-economic development and resource redistribution policies in the context of peace building and conflict resolution processes has led to fragile post-conflict societies vulnerable to the recurrence of conflict. Using Rwanda and Burundi as case studies, this article argues that post-conflict transitional justice processes must implement effective socio-economic development and resource redistribution policies as a critical component of a comprehensive strategy aimed at dealing with all the root causes and factors contributing to intractable conflicts. This will ensure just, stable and peaceful post-conflict societies. Key words: intractable conflicts; transitional justice; human needs theory; socio-economic development; resource redistribution
  • Item
    Human rights violations in the ChevronTexaco case, Ecuador: Cultural genocide?
    (Global Campus, 2017-12) Berti Suman, Anna
    This article discusses the Chevron contamination case in Ecuador with the aim of illustrating the scope of the human rights violations suffered by the affected indigenous communities. The contribution is inserted into a broader debate on the need for business to respect human rights, in a society where profit seems to be corporations’ only concern. The facts of the case and the damage to the indigenous peoples’ rights and culture are presented. The legal developments of the case are illustrated, with the focus falling on Chevron’s delaying strategy before the judicial system. The risk of new forms of colonisation hidden in cases like the Chevron Ecuador case is highlighted. When threats resembling colonisation are posed to the rights, culture and dignity of the local inhabitants, ex post reparations seem inadequate. However, participatory processes of defining the remediation together with the affected communities may restore some of the values lost. The analysis of the facts leads to the assertion that the Chevron Ecuador case could be regarded as cultural genocide and even as a crime against humanity. The supposed reasons that induced the multinational to intentionally ‘destroy’ the local culture are outlined. Numerous international treaties to which Ecuador is a party support this statement. Moreover, it is suggested that the case should be considered not only from the perspective of the Inter-American system, but also from the European Union’s normative framework. EU action on behalf of the Ecuadorian affected people is presented as advisable and recommendations on possible forms of this action are highlighted. Key words: environmental crime; indigenous rights; human rights violations; oil exploitation; cultural genocide; United Nations system; European Union system
  • Item
    Intractable conflicts in Africa: The international response to the Darfur and South Sudan crises
    (Global Campus, 2017-12) Owiso, Roger ; Boshoff, Elsabé ; Mamhare, Tapiwa Matemai ; Tsighe, Adiam Zemenfes
    This article considers the intractable conflicts and human rights situations in Darfur, Sudan and South Sudan, respectively, against the international responses they elicited. Intractable conflicts are conflicts that have lasted for a long time with resistance to settlement despite various attempts at intervention and conciliation. These conflicts from neighbouring nations have both elicited extensive engagement from the international and regional communities but, while some clarity regarding the direction to be taken has been achieved in the case of South Sudan, the situation in Darfur remains dire. The article analyses the difference in the peace-building approaches in the two conflicts and how these approaches have contributed to the different outcomes in Darfur and South Sudan. Following an exposition of intractability in the introduction, the second section applies the factors identified to the case of Darfur, confirming that this indeed is an intractable situation. It then considers the international response to the conflict in Darfur and the mechanisms employed by the global and the regional community in an attempt to address this conflict. The third section considers the situation in South Sudan and the international response, noting that efforts were led by the regional and subregional bodies, with the UN’s role being to complement these efforts. The methodology employed is a comparative analysis, in which the international and regional legal and institutional responses to the crisis in South Sudan are analysed with a view to identifying the lessons to be applied in addressing the situation in Darfur, utilising theoretical and functional approaches to legal and political interventions. The final section draws from the insights gained in comparing the international response in Darfur and South Sudan, and concludes by attempting to extract general principles about intractability and the effectiveness of international responses to situations considered to be intractable, noting in particular the importance of regional and sub-regional bodies taking the lead in efforts to resolve intractable conflicts. Key words: conflict; intractability; human rights; South Sudan; Darfur