Global Campus Europe: EMA

European Master in Human Rights and Democratisation Theses written in partial fulfilment of master's degree


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 2075
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    Unveiling the transformative influence of social media in amplifying social movements, driving social change, and empowering women: the case of #womenlifefreedom in Iran
    ( 2023) Maxwell, Gabriella ; Agapiou-Josephides, Kalliope
    Social media platforms have emerged as vital tools for activism, offering individuals the ability to express widely shared grievances, mobilise resources, and forge collective identities, all contributing to social change. However, given the relatively recent emergence of social media, research in this field is still in its early stages, and there remain major disagreements regarding social media's precise role. Furthermore, despite indications of the empowering role of social media, particularly for women who have historically encountered social, cultural, and legal barriers, there remains a notable lack of gendered analysis in this area of research. Consequently, by drawing on New Social Movement (NSM) theories and adopting a multidimensional perspective on empowerment, this study explores social media’s role in facilitating social movements and driving societal transformation within the context of Iran. Additionally, as this movement appears to be women-led, it seeks to investigate the involvement of Iranian women in the protests and how these engagements can contribute to their empowerment. To address these, this study adopts a qualitative method approach, predominantly focusing on visual content analysis of Instagram posts under the hashtag #womenlifefreedom. The findings indicate that the affordances of social media, specifically Instagram, has significantly enabled Iranian women’s empowerment in three key areas: amplification of voices, raising consciousness, and fostering identity formation.
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    The motivation of perpetrators: an interdisciplinary synthesis on how inhuman Treatment in care facilities can still occur
    ( 2023) Mathys, Adriana ; Pushkarova, Iva
    This thesis investigates the motivation behind the usage of inhuman treatment of caregivers on residents of care facilities. It is divided into three main objectives: providing an overview of definitions and concepts related to inhuman treatment, examining existing legal measures and regulations to prevent such treatment, and identifying and analyzing the typical motivations behind its usage. The research methodology involves a comprehensive literature review, incorporating various fields such as philosophy, psychology, ethics, and law. The overview of definitions and concepts reveals the importance of vulnerability, empowerment, capability, protection, and inhuman treatment. The examination of existing mechanisms focuses on the rights of residents in care facilities and national measures taken to prevent inhuman treatment. The analysis of motives considers both individual and societal factors. Power dynamics, culture, and discrimination are identified as societal structures that can contribute to inhuman treatment, while individual motives include the release of tension and sadistic pleasure. The connection of these motivations is highlighted. The thesis concludes that while existing measures are valuable, additional mechanisms need to be implemented to combat inhuman treatment in care facilities. By considering the motives of perpetrators and their interaction with societal structures, policymakers and caregivers can enhance preventive measures and improve the well-being of residents.
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    The role of religious and traditional leaders in female genital mutilation/cutting prevention : an analysis of two Kenyan NGOs
    ( 2023) Kress, Katia ; Petersen, Marie Juul
    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is common in many countries worldwide. This harmful practice violates women’s and girls’ rights and perpetuates discriminatory social norms. Interventions aimed at its abandonment are numerous, ranging from criminalisation, and other legal measures to education, awareness-raising, and other initiatives aimed at changing the social norms and traditions that sustain the practice. Kenya is one of the most advanced African countries in terms of prevention activities and the country has witnessed a decrease in the practice in the last few years. Yet, despite the complete criminalisation of the practice and the prohibition of medicalisation, FGM/C is still ongoing in numerous communities, pointing to the need for other approaches to ensure long-term abandonment of the practice. This study focuses on the role of religious and traditional leaders in FGM/C prevention, arguing that they can play an important role in NGO interventions aimed at changing social norms and traditions around FGM/C. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce the practice of FGM/C and present an overview of FGM/C prevention efforts. Chapter 4 zooms in on the role of religious and traditional leaders in FGM/C prevention efforts, outlining common rationales for cooperation and types of engagement. Building on this analysis, the last chapter presents an empirical analysis of two Kenyan NGOs (Amref and Men End FGM) and their cooperation with religious and traditional leaders. The conclusion sums up the analysis and raises new perspectives on the topic. Keywords: female genital mutilation/cutting, prevention, religious leader, traditional leader, Kenya, NGOs, health risks approach, gender equality approach, theological approach
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    Conflict resolution and peacebuilding : the case of minorities in Afghanistan
    ( 2023) Kohistani, Mustafa ; Heintze, Hans-Joachim
    In the context of more general international human rights standards, this thesis investigates the situation of minority rights in Afghanistan based on international agreements as well as those that Afghanistan is required to abide by. It primarily focuses on the limitations and challenges that Afghanistan's minority communities have faced both during the leadership of the Taliban and earlier regimes. In order to give a thorough analysis, the research employs a multi-dimensional approach and draws on a thorough review of academic literature, international law documents, reports from human rights groups, and secondary sources. It examines the historical background of minority rights in Afghanistan, focusing on how political upheavals and military wars affect marginalized groups. The thesis studies the treaties, agreements, and declarations that make up the international legal framework for minority rights, emphasizing their importance in advancing inclusion, equality, and nondiscrimination. It evaluates the extent to which these criteria have been applied and upheld in Afghanistan and looks at the obstacles and restrictions that minority groups must overcome in order to exercise their rights. The paper then explores the obstacles minorities in Afghanistan had to overcome under the previous and present Taliban regimes. It looks at topics such as political exclusion, cultural integration, limited access to healthcare and education, low representation in politics, and restrictions on religious freedom. It also looks into how displacement and armed conflict affect minority rights. The results of this study add to the larger conversation over minorities' rights in Afghanistan. It emphasizes the significance of thorough legal systems, inclusive governance frameworks, and proactive steps to safeguard and strengthen minority populations. The thesis offers suggestions for how to create an atmosphere that supports minorities' rights in Afghanistan for decision-makers, civil society groups, and the international community. Keywords: Afghanistan, Minority Rights, inclusiveness, comparative comparison, human rights, Taliban rule, and international norms.
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    Confronting pseudo Caesars with paper tigers : defending the right to vote
    ( 2023) Knapp, Mark T. ; Unger, Anna
    Concerned by the growing democratic erosion and international cross fertilization of right-wing authoritarian actors, this study employs a qualitative comparative analysis looking at authoritarian practices of two political parties, Republicans in the US and Fidesz in Hungary, and their attempts to sabotage accountability by suppressing the will of the people as expressed by the right to freely and equally vote. To discern the scope and effect of these authoritarian practices, this analysis examines prior scholarly research, legal cases and commentary, statutory law, journalistic analysis, news reports, NGO reports, and extensive personal interviews conducted in Budapest by the author of lawyers, journalists, Professors, researchers, and activists. It finds that with Hungary, authoritarian practices have been clandestine and gradual, albeit legal, and thus contrary to expectations given the weakening of the press, opposition, and courts in the recent democratic erosion to an electoral autocracy. The opposite is true in the US such that despite strong opposition, strong courts and press, the Republican authoritarian practices are blatant and bold evidencing a psychology of meanness. This study provides some analysis and explanation of these findings. This study also assesses, as ineffectual, the Human Rights mechanism and other legal avenues to challenge these authoritarian practices in each country, while suggesting a significant strengthening of International Election Observation as a possibly more effective tool for confronting authoritarianism. It concludes by urging action to confront authoritarians.