Global Campus Europe: EMA

European Master in Human Rights and Democratisation Theses written in partial fulfilment of master's degree


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 2111
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    State persecution and resistance movement in Baluchistan: a case study of the role of women there
    ( 2023) Afzal, Muqaddas ; Nowak, Karol
    One of the most troubled regions in modern day Pakistan, the province of Baluchistan has been marked by decades of underdevelopment, violent insurgencies, and brutal repression on the part of the Pakistani state. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the province is also known for a “traditional” and “patriarchal” culture and lags woefully behind both the rest of the country and the world in indicators of gender equality and women’s empowerment. Beginning in 2005, however, Baloch women have become increasingly prominent in both the peaceful and violent components of the most recent insurgency. Drawing upon interviews with a select group of Baloch activists, this study argues that the increasing prominence of female activists in Baloch public life has—paradoxically—been driven largely by repressive activities of the Pakistani state. Through the widespread practice of using “forced disappearances” against Baloch males, particularly to supress the fifth insurgency in the province, the military apparatus has effectively forced many women into active public roles that clash with the image of Baluchistan as a patriarchal society. While the fate of the province remains unclear, this study argues that these trends suggest the potential for armed conflict to unintentionally drive change in gender roles.
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    Protecting human rights defenders: analysis of the Inter-American Court of Human Right’s jurisprudential lines on human rights defenders and the right to defend human rights
    ( 2023) Williams Manzanarez, Rebeca María ; Gómez Isa, Felipe ; Eguren, Luis Enrique
    Protecting Human Rights Defenders is a complex task requiring the State to assure a safe environment to exercise the right to defend human rights freely, including adopting adequate and effective protection measures. This research will analyze the jurisprudential guidelines established by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to explore the scope of the term human rights defender, and the right to defend humans for compiling standards to implement those measures. The Court has adopted these as guarantees of non-reparation to prevent the commitment of violence against human rights defenders, and consequently strengthen the democratic structure. As it will be discussed, currently the protection strategies implemented in the region so far, are guided by a view of securitization of the right to defend human rights, that limits the risk analysis leaving aside crucial element for the design of the protection strategies, such as the particularities of the defender's identities. The previous makes necessary to contribute to the discussion of the implementation of a broader and critical approach. In that regard, this study would also be done based on reports from international and regional organizations for the protection of human rights and the main debates of civil society organizations and defenders about the protection measures. Key words: human rights defenders, right to defend human rights, public polices, protection mechanisms.
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    The phenomenon of hate speech in public discourse: the case of Greece. Is hate speech correlated with hate crimes in Greece?
    ( 2023) Voda, Vodjona ; Lemmens, Koen
    In this paper, we delve into the phenomenon of hate speech within the realm of public discourse in Greece, with a particular focus on its potential correlation with hate crimes. By meticulously exploring historical, societal, and contextual factors, we aim to decipher whether hate speech is a precursor to hate crimes within the Greek context. Our investigation commences with an intricate examination of hate speech, encompassing its definition and conceptual frameworks. Drawing from diverse theoretical perspectives such as the Liberal approach, Critical Race Theory, and Speech Act Theory, we build a comprehensive understanding of hate speech's nuances. Moving on, we provide a detailed overview of hate speech in Greece, elucidating its historical roots and societal dynamics. We analyse its manifestation across various platforms, from mainstream media to the digital realm of social media. We gauge its impact on different segments of Greek society through empirical insights. At the heart of our research lies the exploration of a potential link between hate speech and hate crimes. Through a systematic breakdown of hate crimes, their classifications, and case studies, we endeavour to establish whether hate speech contributes to the perpetration of hate crimes in Greece. Guided by Human Rights Theory and the principle of human dignity, we propose a comprehensive framework to counteract hate speech. We examine Greece's legal landscape, civil society organisations' roles, and the influence of European Union measures in effectively curbing hate speech. In summation, our study unravels the intricate interplay between hate speech and hate crimes in Greece. We illuminate a potential correlation between these phenomena by unravelling historical roots, analysing contemporary manifestations, and providing a robust theoretical framework. Our recommendations offer practical insights into combatting hate speech and, consequently, mitigating the risk of hate crimes in the dynamic landscape of Greek public discourse.
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    Shattering illusions: rethinking human rights protection within the corporate social responsibility framework. The case of child labor in the agricultural sector
    ( 2023) Vernidaki, Alexandra Rafaela ; Hauser, Agata
    The research examines the potential corporate pretense when it comes to a company advertising its social responsibility, by manipulating its CSR program, as a strategy to deflect public attention away from human rights violations committed by or in complicity with the company itself, undermining in this way the advancement of BHR agenda. By using a statistical exploration and a case study analysis of three TNCs from the agricultural sector that have been accused of using child labor in their supply chains, it observes that a certain degree of pretense may be assumed, among other possible eventualities and explanations, given the discrepancy found between CSR commitments and ratings on the one hand, and corporate human rights performance, on the other. Therefore, it concludes that there is a possibility of corporations using their CSR programs as a tool with the aim of masking their involvement with human rights violations. Finally, it suggests that corporations should at least acknowledge the objective difficulties of identifying and fighting possible human rights violations occurring along their supply chains and mention relevant restrictions when advertising their endeavors to implement responsible business practices. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Business & Human Rights; CSR instrumentalization; Child Labor
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    How can unhealthy dietary patterns affect children’s right to education? An analysis of the situation in the United Kingdom
    ( 2023) Vasconcelos, Maria Leonor : Santos Batista Lufinha de ; Ananthavinayagan, Thamil
    The right to education is vital in the development of human beings, since it promotes democracy, tolerance and critical thinking, which is why it is extremely important that all children have the best possible access to a multidimensional and multidisciplinary education. However, there are numerous external factors that, although not directly affecting access to this education, influence the quality of learning that each child derives from it. To this end the right to adequate food becomes particularly crucial. As such, this dissertation aims to prove that it is indeed possible to establish a link between the two, especially given that unhealthy diet patterns can have multiple repercussions on the daily functioning of children, consequently negatively impacting their right to education. This is mainly due to the intimate relationship between children with poor diets and the proliferation of disorders that affect focus and concentration skills, namely Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), hyperactivity and hypertension. The connection relates to the fact that unhealthy dietary patterns, such as high levels of refined sugar or saturated and trans fats, contribute to the emergence or worsening of these disorders. At the same time, this results in highly medicated children. Studies demonstrate how this corresponds to a negative impact with regard to the academic performance of children, especially when it comes to memory and learning. The problem is aggravated to the extent that, in most of the Western world today, these unhealthy dietary patterns are so part and parcel of the cultural society that there is enormous resistance to their effective reform, as is visible, for instance, from the rejection and the failure of projects, such as the “School Dinners” in the United Kingdom. This dissertation, therefore, will be build around the following research question: how can unhealthy dietary patterns affect children’s right to education? Given that it aims to investigate the interconnection between unhealthy eating patterns, correlating the previously mentioned disorders impact upon children, and both their influence on children’s education, that is, what impact does not access, but the declining quality of children’s food can exercise on their right to education.