Children for sale : infant trafficking for illegal adoption. The case of Roma in Bulgaria
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This thesis examines the scope of infant trafficking for illegal adoption in Bulgaria. It provides a definition of the phenomenon and explains the workings of the trafficking system. It searches for the roots of the problem by taking into consideration the profile of the victims, effectiveness of state institutions, legal enforcement and rule of law. It is developed on two levels. The first level observes the demand for baby sale among the most vulnerable groups in Bulgaria, and the demand for adoptions in the countries of destination. The main finding is that the majority of trafficked babies are of Roma ethnicity, which is an outcome of their socio-economic situation. It provides a deeper look into the marginalization of the Roma community, by addressing several vulnerability areas and the multiple discrimination they face. The second level examines the state’s limitations, creating obstacles for effectively fighting trafficking, such as an inadequate national legal framework and ineffective authorities. It further elaborates on the international legislative framework and lack of international cooperation. The research concludes with several recommendations directed towards all actors and provides an opinion on future prospects and benefits related to inclusion of Roma.