A second chance: from the process of radicalisation to a deradicalisation programme. The voluntary homecoming foreign fighters. The importance of rehabilitation, reintegration and resocialisation.
Quitério, Gonçalo : Rolo
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The first part of this research aims to analyse the process of radicalisation, namely the reasons and factors that have motivated thousands of European citizens to embrace the fundamentalist and extremist ideology of the Islamic State, followed by an explanation of what has failed in terms of social inclusion of those people. Furthermore, by briefly analysing the western counter-terrorism measures, the dissertation aims to ascertain if these aggressive measures have had a counter-productive effect and to what extent it was the lever that potentiated some of the hate speech against western countries. In the second part, the focus will be the necessity of an effective deradicalisation program and how it should be addressed, focusing on a non-prosecution route to those who voluntarily returned, with the main emphasis on children. To understand these programs from a practical perspective, a critical case study examination of the decentralised deradicalisation and reintegration program of Denmark, the Aarhus Model, and the centralised program of France will be demonstrated. It concludes by addressing some challenges and ethical questions that may be posed when dealing with a sensitive topic as the process of radicalisation and the subsequent process of deradicalisation. Keywords: Radicalisation, Deradicalisation, Rehabilitation, Counter-Terrorism, Children