The impacts of the European legal and policy framework on trafficking in human beings: a case study on Albania
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The thesis is aimed at exploring the current European framework related to trafficking in human beings (THB), highlighting its strengths and weaknesses as well as focusing on a country of origin of THB, Albania. Overall, the works of the Council of Europe (CoE), the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Security and the Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in the fight against THB are considered as complementary, despite numerous risks of repetitive work. The three institutions developed common approaches to eradicate THB but they are not the most suitable to address the phenomenon. The study suggests consequently including a new approach: a human security approach. The result of the study showed that adopting a human security approach can drastically re- duce THB. It is therefore primordial to prevent THB and tackle its roots, that is to say fostering access to education and create job opportunities. Albania is very active in the fight against THB. The Albanian authorities included the international and European legal frameworks on THB by amending its Criminal Code. However, several obstacles persist, notably in terms of implementation. Albania is currently facing new trends of THB, like labour exploitation and internal trafficking, and must adapt itself accordingly.