Human trafficking into peacekeeping areas: the cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
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This thesis deals with human trafficking into peacekeeping areas, and especially the paradoxical link between a peacekeeping mission and intensified human trafficking to a host country: it has been proved that arrival and presence of international personnel increase the demand for trafficked persons, nevertheless, peacekeeping personnel is also found to be involved in sexual exploitation and abuse against the local population, including human trafficking mainly for forced prostitution. International community acknowledged and addressed this issue in early 2000s by adopting various instruments prohibiting sexual exploitation and abuse by international staff. Gender mainstreaming policies are now also included in the mandates of peacekeeping missions. The main focus of the thesis is to analyse and compare the effects of two UN peacekeeping missions to Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) and Kosovo (UNMIK). The case study is conducted in order to examine the trends of human trafficking, and adequacy and effectiveness of international and national policies and other measures taken to address this issue and combat human trafficking into peacekeeping areas. The thesis concludes that there was a strong link between increased human trafficking and the presence of international personnel in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo. Nevertheless, peacekeeping personnel were alleged of sexual exploitation against local population. Finally, gender mainstreaming policy is recommended as one of the best approach to address this issue.