Targeted approach to unaccompanied migrant minors : a monitoring instrument to improve the efficacy of national policies. The case study of Italy
Migration represents today, especially for European Countries, one of the most crucial challenges. It is a multifaceted phenomenon, characterized by a plurality of individuals, with different needs and aspirations. Among them, peculiar importance is covered by unaccompanied migrant minors. The latter’s recognition is quite recent and it is based on the absence of adults’ care, which makes children particularly vulnerable. In this context, to positively approach migration represents an essential goal to be reached for the satisfaction all subjects involved: migrants, citizens, States. This Thesis focuses on unaccompanied migrant minors aged between 15 and 18 years (who represent the highest and most complex presence), in order to identify both their peculiarities and the best instruments to provide adequate normative answers. Substantially, two ideas sustain this approach: on the one hand, that each group of individuals composing the migrant population has peculiar needs; on the other hand that the individuation of such characteristics, and the consequent articulation of national intervention, can lead to more efficacy implementation of guarantees and protections. On the basis of the peculiarities typifying unaccompanied minors above fifteen years of age, a specific Monitoring Instrument has been proposed to improve State’s evaluation of existing policies and their development of future legislations. Finally, the case study of Italy has been analysed, also through the application of the Monitoring Instrument. Thus, the Thesis has been provided with a higher level of effectiveness. Firstly, the phenomenon of unaccompanied migrant minors has been investigated and evaluated in the context of one of the most sensible European State of destination. Secondly, the Monitoring Instrument’s efficacy has been evaluated, in order to define future refinements and implementations. In the whole development of the research and analysis, Human Rights have been recognized a peculiar role: the unavoidable frame for States’ constructive interventions. Indeed, Human Rights provide States with general scopes and objectives, leaving space to develop national policies in consideration of different realities, resources and cultures.